Secured Loans Receivable
|6 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2022
|Secured Loans Receivable||
5. SECURED LOANS RECEIVABLE
Below is a summary of the carrying value of our secured loans as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2022:
Secured Loans - Originated: Secured loans include short-term loans, which include a combination of on-demand lines and short-term facilities. These loans are fully secured by the customers' assets, which predominantly include bullion and numismatic and semi-numismatic material, and which are typically held in safekeeping by the Company.
Secured Loans - Acquired: Secured loans also include short-term loans, which include a combination of on-demand lines and short-term facilities that are purchased from our customers. The Company acquires a portfolio of their loan receivables at a price that approximates the outstanding balance of each loan in the portfolio, as determined on the effective transaction date. Each loan in the portfolio is fully secured by the borrowers' assets, which include bullion and numismatic and semi-numismatic material, and which are typically held in safekeeping by the Company. The seller of the loan portfolio generally retains the responsibility for the servicing and administration of the loans.
As of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2022, our secured loans carried weighted-average effective interest rates of 9.8% and 9.4%, respectively, and mature in periods ranging typically from on-demand to one year.
The secured loans that the Company generates with active customers of A-Mark are reflected as an operating activity on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows. The secured loans that the Company generates with borrowers that are not active customers of A-Mark are reflected as an investing activity on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows as secured loans receivables, net. For the secured loans that (i) are reflected as an investing activity and have terms that allow the borrowers to increase their loan balance (at the discretion of the Company) based on the excess value of their collateral compared to their aggregate principal balance of loan, and (ii) are repayable on demand or in the short-term, the borrowings and repayments are netted on the condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
Credit Quality of Secured Loans Receivables and Allowance for Credit Losses
The Company's secured loan receivables portfolio comprises loans with similar credit risk profiles, which enables the Company to apply a standard methodology to determine the credit quality for each loan and the allowance for credit losses, if any.
The credit quality of each loan is generally determined by the collateral value assessment, loan-to-value (“LTV”) ratio (that is, the principal amount of the loan divided by the estimated value of the collateral) and the type (or class) of secured material. All loans are fully secured by precious metal bullion, numismatic and semi-numismatic collateral, or graded sports cards and sports memorabilia, which remains in the physical custody of the Company for the duration of the loan. The term of the loans is generally 180 days, however loans are typically renewed prior to maturity and therefore remain outstanding for a longer period of time. Interest earned on a loan is billed monthly and is typically due and payable within 20 days and, if not paid after all applicable grace periods, is added to the outstanding principal balance, and late fees and default interest rates are assessed.
When an account is in default or if a margin call has not been met on a timely basis, the Company has the right to liquidate the borrower's collateral in order to satisfy the unpaid balance of the outstanding loans, including accrued and unpaid interest.
Class and Credit Quality of Loans
The three classes of secured loan receivables are defined by collateral type: (i) bullion, (ii) numismatic and semi-numismatic and (iii) graded sports cards and sports memorabilia. The Company required LTV ratios vary with the class of loans. Typically, the Company requires an LTV ratio of approximately 75% for bullion, 65% for numismatic and semi-numismatic collateral, and 50% for graded sports cards and sports memorabilia. The LTV ratio for loans collateralized by numismatic and semi-numismatic collateral is typically lower on a percentage basis than bullion collateralized loans because a higher value of the numismatic and semi-numismatic collateral relates to its premium value, rather than its underlying commodity value. The LTV ratio for loans collateralized by graded sports cards and sports memorabilia is lower because the underlying collateral is not as liquid as bullion and numismatic and semi-numismatic collateral.
The Company's secured loans by portfolio class, which align with internal management reporting, are as follows:
Due to the nature of market fluctuations of precious metal commodity prices, the Company monitors the bullion collateral value of each loan on a daily basis, based on spot price of precious metals. Numismatic and graded sports cards and sports memorabilia collateral values are updated by numismatic and graded sports cards and sports memorabilia specialists typically within every 90 days and when loan terms are renewed.
Generally, we initiate the margin call process when the outstanding loan balance is in excess of 85% of the current value of the underlying collateral. In the event that a borrower fails to meet a margin call to reestablish the required LTV ratio, the loan is considered in default. The collateral material (either bullion, numismatic or graded sports cards and sports memorabilia) underlying such loans is then sold by the Company to satisfy all amounts due under the loan.
Loans with LTV ratios of less than 75% are generally considered to be higher quality loans. Below is summary of aggregate outstanding secured loan balances bifurcated into (i) loans with an LTV ratio of less than 75% and (ii) loans with an LTV ratio of 75% or more:
The Company had no loans with an LTV ratio in excess of 100% as of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2022.
Non-Performing Loans/Impaired Loans
Historically, the Company has not established an allowance for any credit losses because the Company has liquidated the collateral to satisfy the amount due before any loan becomes non-performing or impaired.
Non-performing loans have the highest probability for credit loss. The allowance for secured loan credit losses attributable to non-performing loans is based on the most probable source of repayment, which is normally the liquidation of collateral. Due to the accelerated liquidation terms of the Company's loan portfolio, past due loans are generally liquidated within 90 days of default before a loan becomes non-performing. In the event a loan was to become non-performing, the Company would determine a reserve to reduce
the carrying balance to its estimated net realizable value. As of December 31, 2022 and June 30, 2022, the Company had no allowance for secured loan losses or loans classified as non-performing.
A loan is considered impaired if it is probable, based on current information and events, that the Company will be unable to collect all amounts due according to the contractual terms of the loan. Customer loans are reviewed for impairment and include loans that are past due or non-performing, or if the customer is in bankruptcy. In the event of an impairment, recognition of interest income would be suspended, and the loan would be placed on non-accrual status at the time. Accrual would be resumed, and previously suspended interest income would be recognized, when the loan becomes contractually current and/or collection doubts are removed. Cash receipts on impaired loans are recorded first against the receivable and then to any unrecognized interest income. For the three and six months ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, the Company incurred no loan impairment costs and no loans were placed on a non-accrual status.
The entire disclosure for financing receivable.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef