Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2014
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Basis of Presentation and Principles of Consolidation
The condensed consolidated financial statements reflect the financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows of the Company, and were prepared using accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”). The Company operated in one segment for all periods presented.
These condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of A-Mark, and its wholly owned subsidiaries, CFC, AMTAG and TDS (collectively the “Company”). All significant inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The condensed consolidated statements of income include all revenues and costs attributable to the Company's operations, including costs for certain functions and services performed by SGI and directly charged or allocated based on usage or other systematic methods. The allocations and estimates are not necessarily indicative of the costs and expenses that would have resulted if the Company's operations had been operated as a separate stand-alone entity. Allocations for inter-company shared service expense are made on a reasonable basis to approximate market costs for such services; these allocations are only applicable for periods prior to the spinoff. Management believes the allocation methods are reasonable.
Unaudited Interim Financial Information
The accompanying interim condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared by the Company pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) for interim financial reporting. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements are unaudited and, in the opinion of management, include all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring adjustments and accruals) necessary to present fairly the condensed consolidated balance sheets, condensed consolidated statements of income, condensed consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity, and condensed consolidated statements of cash flows for the periods presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Operating results for the three months ended September 30, 2014 are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending June 30, 2015 or for any other interim period during such fiscal year. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been omitted in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC. These interim condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto contained in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended June 30, 2014 (the “2014 Annual Report”), as filed with the SEC. Amounts related to disclosure of June 30, 2014 balances within these interim condensed consolidated financial statements were derived from the aforementioned audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in the 2014 Annual Report.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting periods. These estimates include, among others, determination of fair value, and allowances for doubtful accounts, impairment assessments of long-lived assets and intangible assets, valuation reserve determinations on deferred tax assets, and revenue recognition judgments. Significant estimates also include the Company's fair value determinations with respect to its financial instruments and precious metals materials. Actual results could materially differ from these estimates.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Cash is maintained at financial institutions and, at times, balances may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has never experienced any losses related to these balances.
Assets that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of receivables, loans of inventory to customers, and inventory hedging transactions. Concentration of credit risk with respect to receivables is limited due to the large number of customers composing the Company's customer base, the geographic dispersion of the customers, and the collateralization of substantially all receivable balances. Based on an assessment of credit risk, the Company typically grants collateralized credit to its customers. The Company enters into inventory hedging transactions, principally utilizing metals commodity futures contracts traded on national futures exchanges or forward contracts with credit worthy financial institutions. All of our commodity derivative contracts are under master netting arrangements and include both asset and liability positions. Substantially all of these transactions are secured by the underlying metals positions.
The functional currency of the Company is the United States dollar ("USD"). The Company's wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, AMTAG, maintains its books of record in Euros. The Company remeasures the financial statements of AMTAG into USD. The remeasurement of local currency amounts into USD creates remeasurement gains and losses are included in the condensed consolidated statements of income.
To manage the effect of foreign currency exchange fluctuations, the Company utilized foreign currency forward contracts. These derivatives generate gains and losses when they are settled and/or when they are marked to market. The change in the value in the derivative instruments is shown on the face of the condensed consolidated statements of income as unrealized net gains (losses) on foreign exchange.
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, when purchased, to be cash equivalents.
Concentration of Suppliers
A-Mark buys precious metals from a variety of sources, including through brokers and dealers, from sovereign and private mints, from refiners and directly from customers. The Company believes that no one or small group of suppliers is critical to its business, since other sources of supply are available that provide similar products on comparable terms.
Concentration of Customers
Customers providing 10 percent or more of the Company's revenues for the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013 are listed below:
Customers providing 10 percent or more of the Company's accounts receivable, excluding $38.6 million and $41.3 million of secured loans and derivative assets of $46.2 million and $22.2 million, as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014, respectively, are listed below:
Customers providing 10 percent or more of the Company's secured loans as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014, respectively, are listed below:
The loss of any of the above customers could have a material adverse effect on the operations of the Company.
Inventories principally include bullion and bullion coins and are acquired and initially recorded at fair market value. The fair market value of the bullion and bullion coins is comprised of two components: (1) published market values attributable to the costs of the raw precious metal, and (2) a published premium paid at acquisition of the metal. The premium is attributable to the additional value of the product in its finished goods form and the market value attributable solely to the premium may be readily determined, as it is published by multiple reputable sources.
The Company’s inventories, except for certain lower of cost or market basis products (as discussed below), are subsequently recorded at their fair market values, that is, "marked-to-market". The daily changes in the fair market value of our inventory are offset by daily changes in the fair market value of hedging derivatives that are taken with respect to our inventory positions; both the change in the fair market value of the inventory and the change in the fair market value of these derivative instruments are recorded in cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of income.
While the premium component included in inventories is marked-to-market, our commemorative coin inventory, including its premium component, is held at the lower of cost or market, because the value of commemorative coins is more influenced by supply and demand determinants than on the underlying spot price of the precious metal content of the commemorative coins. Unlike our bullion coins, the value of commemorative coins is not subject to the same level of volatility as bullion coins because our commemorative coins typically carry a substantially higher premium over the spot metal price than bullion coins. As of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014 the premium component included in inventory was $2.8 million and $3.3 million, respectively. Our commemorative coin inventory totaled $0.8 million and $2.6 million as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014, respectively. (See Note 4). Neither the commemorative coin inventory nor the premium component of our inventory is hedged.
Inventories include amounts borrowed from suppliers under arrangements to purchase precious metals on an unallocated basis. Unallocated or pool metal represents an unsegregated inventory position that is due on demand, in a specified physical form, based on the total ounces of metal held in the position. Amounts under these arrangements require delivery either in the form of precious metals or cash. Corresponding obligations related to liabilities on borrowed metals are reflected on the condensed consolidated balance sheets and totaled $12.0 million and $8.7 million, respectively as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014. The Company mitigates market risk of its physical inventories through commodity hedge transactions. The Company also protects substantially all of its physical inventories from market risk through commodity hedge transactions (see Note 11).
The Company periodically loans metals to customers on a short-term consignment basis, charging interest fees based on the value of the metals loaned. Inventories loaned under consignment arrangements to customers as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014 totaled $4.3 million and $11.1 million. Such inventories are removed at the time the customers elect to price and purchase the metals, and the Company records a corresponding sale and receivable. Substantially, all inventories loaned under consignment arrangements are collateralized for the benefit of the Company.
Inventory includes amounts for obligations under product financing agreement. The Company enters into an agreement for the sale of gold and silver at a fixed price to a third party. This inventory is restricted and the Company is allowed to repurchase the inventory at an agreed-upon price based on the spot price on the repurchase date. The third party charges a monthly fee as percentage of the market value of the outstanding obligation; such monthly charge is classified in interest expense in the condensed consolidated statements of income. These transactions do not qualify as sales and therefore have been accounted for as financing arrangements and reflected in the condensed consolidated balance sheet within product financing arrangement. The obligation is stated at the amount required to repurchase the outstanding inventory. Both the product financing and the underlying inventory (which is entirely restricted) are carried at fair value, with changes in fair value included as component of cost of precious metals sold. Such obligation totaled $20.6 million and $24.6 million as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014, respectively.
The Company enters into arrangements with certain customers under which A-Mark purchases precious metals products that are subject to repurchase by the customer at the fair value of the of the product on the repurchase date. The Company or the counterparty may terminate any such arrangement with 14 days notice. Upon termination the customer’s rights to repurchase any remaining inventory is forfeited. As of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014, included within inventory is $26.1 million and $24.6 million, respectively, of precious metals products subject to repurchase.
Property and Equipment and Depreciation
Property and equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated using a straight line method based on the estimated useful lives of the related assets, ranging from three years to five years.
Goodwill and Purchased Intangible Assets
Goodwill is recorded when the purchase price paid for an acquisition exceeds the estimated fair value of the net identified tangible and intangible assets acquired.
Goodwill and other indefinite life intangibles are evaluated for impairment annually in the fourth quarter of the fiscal year (or more frequently if indicators of potential impairment exist) in accordance with the Intangibles - Goodwill and Other Topic 350 of the ASC. Other purchased intangible assets continue to be amortized over their useful lives and are evaluated for impairment when events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. The Company may first qualitatively assess whether relevant events and circumstances make it more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill is less than its carrying value. If, based on this qualitative assessment, management determines that goodwill is more likely than not to be impaired, the two-step impairment test is performed. This first step in this test includes comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step in the test is performed, which is measurement of the impairment loss. The impairment loss is calculated by comparing the implied fair value of goodwill, as if the reporting unit has been acquired in a business combination, to its carrying amount. As of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014, the Company had no impairments.
If the Company determines it will quantitatively assess impairment, the Company utilizes the discounted cash flow method to determine the fair value of each of its reporting units. In calculating the implied fair value of the reporting unit's goodwill, the present value of the reporting unit's expected future cash flows is allocated to all of the other assets and liabilities of that unit based on their fair values. The excess of the present value of the reporting unit's expected future cash flows over the amount assigned to its other assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill. In calculating the implied value of the Company's trade names, the Company uses the present value of the relief from royalty method.
Amortizable intangible assets are being amortized on a straight-line basis which approximates economic use, over periods ranging from four years to fifteen years. The Company considers the useful life of the trademarks to be indefinite. The Company tests the value of the trademarks and trade name annually for impairment.
Long-lived assets, other than goodwill and purchased intangible assets with indefinite lives are evaluated for impairment when events or changes in business circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable. In evaluating impairment, the carrying value of the asset is compared to the undiscounted estimated future cash flows expected to result from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. An impairment loss is recognized when estimated future cash flows are less than the carrying amount. Estimates of future cash flows may be internally developed or based on independent appraisals and significant judgment is applied to make the estimates. Changes in the Company's strategy, assumptions and/or market conditions could significantly impact these judgments and require adjustments to recorded amounts of long-lived assets. As of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014, management concluded that an impairment write-down was not required.
Investments into ownership interest in noncontrolled entities that do not have readily determinable fair values (i.e., non-marketable equity securities) under Cost Method Investments Topic 325-20 of the ASC ("ASC 325-20") are initially recorded at cost. Income is recorded for dividends received that are distributed from net accumulated earnings of the noncontrolled entity subsequent to the date of investment. Dividends received in excess of earnings subsequent to the date of investment are considered a return of investment and are recorded as reductions in the cost of the investment. Investments are written down only when there is clear evidence that a decline in value that is other than temporary has occurred. The Company assesses all cost-method investments for impairment quarterly. Below is a summary of the Company's cost-method investments.
On February 18, 2014, the Company purchased 2.5% of issued and outstanding Class A common stock of a nonpublic, online retailer of generic gold and silver coins and bullion (and a customer of the Company) for $0.5 million. On September 19, 2014, the Company entered into an agreement with a separate customer (also a nonpublic, online retailer of generic gold and silver coins and bullion) to purchase up to 9% of its issued and outstanding common stock, on a fully diluted basis, in two tranches, for an aggregate purchase price of $2.0 million. The closing of the first tranche of the second transaction, for 5% of the retailer's issued and outstanding common stock at a purchase price equal to $1.1 million, took place on September 19, 2014. The closing of the second tranche of the second transaction, for 4% of the retailer's issued and outstanding common stock at a purchase price equal to $0.9 million, will take place on prior to February 15, 2015; provided that A-Mark’s obligation to close the second tranche is subject to various conditions relating to minimum sales and gross profit during the preceding six months.
In connection with both transactions, the Company entered into exclusive supplier agreements, pursuant to which the retailers will purchase all bullion products required for their respective businesses exclusively from A-Mark for a period of 5.0 years and 3.0 years, respectively (subject to renewal and earlier termination under certain circumstances). In the case of the second transaction, A-Mark (i) will continue to provide fulfillment services to the retailer under the terms of a previously existing fulfillment agreement, and (ii) has the right to appoint a board member to the board of directors of the retailer.
As of September 30, 2014, the aggregate carrying amount of the Company’s cost-method investments was $1.6 million. There were no identifiable events or changes in circumstances that may have had a significant adverse effect on the fair value. As a result, no impairment loss was recorded, nor were any dividends received during the three months ended September 30, 2014. For the three months ended September 30, 2014 the Company had aggregate sales of $87.9 million and aggregate purchases of $65.5 million, respectively, with these entities. For the three months ended September 30, 2013 the Company had aggregate sales of $36.3 million and aggregate purchases of $14.5 million, respectively, with these entities. As of September 30, 2014, the aggregate balance of payables due to and the aggregate balance of receivables due from these entities totaled $12.4 million and $11.0 million, respectively. As of June 30, 2014, the aggregate balance of payables due to and the aggregate balance of receivables due from these entities totaled $3.5 million and $2.6 million, respectively.
Fair Value Measurement
The Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures Topic 820 of the ASC ("ASC 820"), creates a single definition of fair value for financial reporting. The rules associated with ASC 820 state that valuation techniques consistent with the market approach, income approach and/or cost approach should be used to estimate fair value. Selection of a valuation technique, or multiple valuation techniques, depends on the nature of the asset or liability being valued, as well as the availability of data.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The following table presents the carrying amounts and estimated fair values of the Company’s financial instruments as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014.
The fair values of the financial instruments shown in the above table as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014 represent the amounts that would be received to sell those assets or that would be paid to transfer those liabilities in an orderly transaction between market participants at that date. Those fair value measurements maximize the use of observable inputs. However, in situations where there is little, if any, market activity for the asset or liability at the measurement date, the fair value measurement reflects the Company’s own judgments about the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. Those judgments are developed by the Company based on the best information available in the circumstances, including expected cash flows and appropriately risk‑adjusted discount rates, available observable and unobservable inputs.
The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, receivables and secured loans, accounts receivable and consignor advances, and accounts payable approximated fair value due to their short-term nature. The carrying amounts of lines of credit approximate fair value based on the borrowing rates currently available to the Company for bank loans with similar terms and average maturities.
Topic 820 of the ASC established a three-level valuation hierarchy for disclosure of fair value measurements. The valuation hierarchy is based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date. The three levels are defined as follows:
The significant assumptions used determine the carrying fair value and related fair value of the financial instruments are described below:
Inventory. Inventories principally include bullion and bullion coins and are acquired and initially recorded at fair market value. The fair market value of the bullion and bullion coins is comprised of two components: 1) published market values attributable to the costs of the raw precious metal, and 2) a published premium paid at acquisition of the metal. The premium is attributable to the additional value of the product in its finished goods form and the market value attributable solely to the premium may be readily determined, as it is published by multiple reputable sources. Except for commemorative coin inventory, which are included in inventory at the lower of cost or market, the Company’s inventories are subsequently recorded at their fair market values on a daily basis. The fair value for commodities inventory (i.e., inventory excluding commemorative coins) is determined using pricing and data derived from the markets on which the underlying commodities are traded. Precious metals commodities inventory are classified in Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.
Derivatives. Futures contracts, forward contracts and open sale and purchase commitments are valued at their intrinsic values, based on the difference between the quoted market price and the contractual price, and are included within Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.
Margin and Borrowed Metals Liabilities. Margin and borrowed metals liabilities consist of the Company's commodity obligations to margin customers and suppliers, respectively. Margin liabilities and borrowed metals liabilities are carried at fair value, which is determined using quoted market pricing and data derived from the markets on which the underlying commodities are traded. Margin and borrowed metals liabilities are classified in Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.
Product Financing Obligations. Product financing obligations consist of financing agreements for the transfer and subsequent re-acquisition of the sale of gold and silver at a fixed price to a third party. Such transactions allow the Company to repurchase this inventory at an agreed-upon price based on the spot price on the repurchase date. The third party charges monthly interest as a percentage of the market value of the outstanding obligation, which is carried at fair value. The obligation is stated at the amount required to repurchase the outstanding inventory. Fair value is determined using quoted market pricing and data derived from the markets on which the underlying commodities are traded. Product financing obligations are classified in Level 1 of the valuation hierarchy.
The following tables present information about the Company's assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2014 and June 30, 2014 aggregated by the level in the fair value hierarchy within which the measurements fall:
(1) Commemorative coin inventory totaling $0.8 million is held at lower of cost or market and is thus excluded from this table.
(1) Commemorative coin inventory totaling $2.6 million is held at lower of cost or market and is thus excluded from this table.
There were no transfers in or out of Level 2 or 3 during the three months ended September 30, 2014.
Assets Measured at Fair Value on a Non-Recurring Basis
Company's goodwill and other intangible assets are measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis. These assets are measured at cost but are written down to fair value if they are impaired. As of September 30, 2014, there were no indications present that the Company's goodwill or other purchased intangibles were impaired, and therefore were not measured at fair value. There were no gains or losses recognized in earnings associated with the above purchased intangibles during the three months ended September 30, 2014.
The Company's investments in ownership interests in noncontrolled entities do not have readily determinable fair values and were initially recorded at cost, $1.6 million, in aggregate. Quoted prices of the investments are not available, and the cost of obtaining an independent valuation appears excessive considering the materiality of the instruments to the Company. There were no gains or losses recognized in earnings associated with the Company's ownership interests in noncontrolled entities during the three months ended September 30, 2014.
Revenues are recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred, the price is fixed or determinable, no obligations remain and collection is probable. The Company records sales of precious metals, which occurs upon receipt by the customer. The Company records revenues from its metal assaying and melting services after the related services are completed and the effects of forward sales contracts are reflected in revenue at the date the related precious metals are delivered or the contracts expire. The Company records revenues from its storage and logistics services after the related services are completed.
The Company accounts for its metals and sales contracts using settlement date accounting. Pursuant to such accounting, the Company recognizes the sale or purchase of the metals at settlement date. During the period between trade and settlement date, the Company has essentially entered into a forward contract that meets the definition of a derivative in accordance with the Derivatives and Hedging Topic 815 of the ASC. The Company records the derivative at the trade date with a corresponding unrealized gain (loss), which is reflected in the cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of income. The Company adjusts the derivatives to fair value on a daily basis until the transaction is physically settled. Sales which are physically settled are recognized at the gross amount in the condensed consolidated statements of income.
The Company uses the effective interest method to recognize interest expense on its secured loans and secured financing transactions. For these arrangements, the Company maintains a security interest in the precious metals and records interest income over the terms of the receivable. Recognition of interest income is suspended and the loan is placed on non-accrual status when management determines that collection of future interest income is not probable. The interest income accrual is resumed, and previously suspended interest income is recognized, when the loan becomes contractually current and/or collection doubts are removed. Cash receipts on impaired loans are recorded first against the receivable and then to any unrecognized interest income (see Note 3).
The Company incurs interest expense and related fees as a result of usage under its lines of credit, product financing arrangements and liability on borrowed metals.
The Company incurs interest expense based on usage under its Trading Credit Facility recording interest expense using the effective interest method.
The Company incurs financing fees (classified as interest expense) as a result of its product financing arrangements for the transfer and subsequent re-acquisition of gold and silver at a fixed price to a third party finance company. During the term of this type of financing agreement, a third party finance company holds the Company's inventory as collateral, with the intent to return the inventory to the Company at an agreed-upon price based on the spot price on the finance arrangement termination date, pursuant to the guidance in ASC 470-40 Product Financing Arrangements. The third party charges a monthly fee as percentage of the market value of the outstanding obligation. In addition, the Company incurs a financing fee related to custodial storage facility charges related to the transferred collateral inventory; this collateral is classified as restricted inventory on our condensed consolidated balance sheets.
Additionally, the Company incurs interest expense when we borrow precious metals from our suppliers under short-term arrangements, which bear interest at a designated rate. Amounts under these arrangements are due at maturity and require repayment either in the form of precious metals or cash. This liability is reflected in the condensed consolidated balance sheet as liability on borrowed metals.
The Company’s inventory consists of precious metals products, and for which Company regularly enters into commitment transactions to purchase and sell its precious metal products. The value of our inventory and these commitments is intimately linked to the prevailing price of the underlying precious metal commodity. The Company seeks to minimize the effect of price changes of the underlying commodity and enters into inventory hedging transactions, principally utilizing metals commodity futures contracts traded on national futures exchanges or forward contracts with only major credit worthy financial institutions. All of our commodity derivative contracts are under master netting arrangements and include both asset and liability positions. Substantially all of these transactions are secured by the underlying metals positions. Notional balances of the Company's derivative instruments, consisting of contractual metal quantities, are expressed at current spot prices of the underlying precious metal commodity (see in Note 11).
Commodity futures and forward contract transactions are recorded at fair value on the trade date. The difference between the original contract value and the market value of the open futures and forward contracts are reflected in receivables or payables in the condensed consolidated balance sheet at fair value (see Note 3 and Note 7).
The Company records the change between market value and trade value of the underlying open commodity contracts as a derivative asset or liability, and it correspondingly records the related unrealized gains or losses. The change in unrealized gain (loss) on open commodity contracts from one period to the next is reflected in net gain (loss) on derivative instruments. These unrealized gains and losses are included as a component of cost of sales on the condensed consolidated statements of income. Gains or losses resulting from the termination of commodity contracts are reported as realized gains or losses on commodity contracts, which is recorded as a component of cost of sales on the condensed consolidated statement of income. Below, is a summary of the net gains (losses) on derivative instruments for the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013.
The Company enters into these derivative transactions solely for the purpose of hedging our inventory holding risk, and not for speculative market purposes. The Company’s gains (losses) on derivative instruments are substantially offset by the changes in the fair market value of the underlying precious metals inventory, which is also recorded in cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of income (see Note 11).
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. Advertising expense was $0.1 million and $0.1 million, respectively, for the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013, and are included in selling, general and administrative expenses in the condensed consolidated statements of income.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling costs represent costs associated with shipping product to customers, and receiving product from vendors. Shipping and handling costs incurred totaled $1.5 million and $1.7 million, respectively, for the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013, and are included in cost of sales in the condensed consolidated statements of income.
The Company accounts for equity awards under the provisions of the Compensation - Stock Compensation Topic 718 of the ASC ("ASC 718"), which establishes fair value-based accounting requirements for share-based compensation to employees. ASC 718 requires the Company to recognize the grant-date fair value of stock options and other equity-based compensation issued to employees as expense over the service period in the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements.
Certain key employees of the Company participated in Stock Incentive Plans of the Former Parent (“Former Plans”). The Former Plans permitted the grant of stock options and other equity awards to employees, officers and non-employee directors. Prior to the Distribution, the equity awards had been settled in shares of SGI stock and A-Mark did not reimburse SGI for the expense, therefore it was treated as a capital contribution to A-Mark. Following the Distribution, the Company settles share-based awards by the delivery of shares of the Company's common stock.
The equity awards assumed by A-Mark in connection of the spinoff contained substantially identical terms, conditions and vesting schedules as the previously outstanding. In accordance with the guidance in ASC 718, the assumption shares qualify as a modification of an equity compensation award. As such, the Company calculated the incremental fair value of the awards immediately prior to and after their modification and determined that there was no positive incremental equity compensation cost that was required to be expensed or amortized. Pertaining to the modified awards of A-Mark's employee and non-employees as of the Distribution date, the Company amortizes the unvested awards based on the fair value and vesting schedule based on the original grant date, as determined by SGI. Pertaining to the modified awards of SGI's employee and non-employees for which A-Mark assumed, the Company does not record compensation expense.
Prior to the Distribution, the Company’s Board of Directors ("Board") adopted and the Company's shareholders approved the 2014 Stock Award and Incentive Plan ("2014 Plan"). Under the 2014 Plan, the Company may grant options and other equity awards as a means of attracting and retaining officers, employees, non-employee directors and consultants, to provide incentives to such persons, and to align the interests of such persons with the interests of stockholders by providing compensation based on the value of the Company's stock. As of September 30, 2014, no equity awards were issued from the 2014 Plan (see Note 13).
As part of the process of preparing its condensed consolidated financial statements, the Company is required to estimate its provision for income taxes in each of the tax jurisdictions in which it conducts business, in accordance with the Income Taxes Topic 740 of the ASC ("ASC 740"). The Company computes its annual tax rate based on the statutory tax rates and tax planning opportunities available to it in the various jurisdictions in which it earns income. Significant judgment is required in determining the Company's annual tax rate and in evaluating uncertainty in its tax positions. The Company recognizes a benefit for tax positions that it believes will more likely than not be sustained upon examination. The amount of benefit recognized is the largest amount of benefit that the Company believes has more than a 50% probability of being realized upon settlement. The Company regularly monitors its tax positions and adjusts the amount of recognized tax benefit based on its evaluation of information that has become available since the end of its last financial reporting period. The annual tax rate includes the impact of these changes in recognized tax benefits. When adjusting the amount of recognized tax benefits, the Company does not consider information that has become available after the balance sheet date, but does disclose the effects of new information whenever those effects would be material to the Company's condensed consolidated financial statements. The difference between the amount of benefit taken or expected to be taken in a tax return and the amount of benefit recognized for financial reporting represents unrecognized tax benefits. These unrecognized tax benefits are presented in the condensed consolidated balance sheet principally within accrued liabilities.
The Company records valuation allowances to reduce deferred tax assets to the amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Significant judgment is applied when assessing the need for valuation allowances. Areas of estimation include the Company's consideration of future taxable income and ongoing prudent and feasible tax planning strategies. Should a change in circumstances lead to a change in judgment about the utilization of deferred tax assets in future years, the Company would adjust related valuation allowances in the period that the change in circumstances occurs, along with a corresponding increase or charge to income. Changes in recognized tax benefits and changes in valuation allowances could be material to the Company's results of operations for any period, but is not expected to be material to the Company's condensed consolidated financial position.
The Company accounts for uncertainty in income taxes under the provisions of ASC 740. These provisions clarify the accounting for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in an enterprise's financial statements, and prescribe a recognition threshold and measurement criteria for the financial statement recognition and measurement of a tax position taken or expected to be taken in a tax return. The provisions also provide guidance on de-recognition, classification, interest, and penalties, accounting in interim periods, disclosure, and transition. The potential interest and/or penalties associated with an uncertain tax position are recorded in provision for income taxes on the condensed consolidated statements of income. Please refer to Note 8 for further discussion regarding these provisions.
Income taxes are accounted for using an asset and liability approach that requires the recognition of deferred tax assets and liabilities for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been included in the financial statements. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is provided when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the net deferred tax assets will not be realized. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization include the Company's forecast of the reversal of temporary differences, future taxable income and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets. Failure to achieve forecasted taxable income in applicable tax jurisdictions could affect the ultimate realization of deferred tax assets and could result in an increase in the Company's effective tax rate on future earnings.
Based on our assessment it appears more likely than not that most of the net deferred tax assets will be realized through future taxable income. Management has established a valuation allowance against the deferred taxes related to certain state net operating loss carryovers. Management believes the utilization of these losses may be limited. We will continue to assess the need for a valuation allowance for our remaining deferred tax assets in the future.
The Company's condensed consolidated financial statements recognized the current and deferred income tax consequences that result from the Company's activities during the current and preceding periods, as if the Company were a separate taxpayer prior to the date of the Distribution rather than a member of the Former Parent's consolidated income tax return group. Current tax receivable reflects balances due from the Former Parent for the Company's share of the income tax assets of the group.
Following the Distribution, the Company files federal and state income tax filings that are separate from the SGI tax filings. The Company recognizes current and deferred income taxes as a separate taxpayer for periods ending after the date of Distribution.
Earnings per Share ("EPS")
The Company computes and reports both basic EPS and diluted EPS. Basic EPS is computed by dividing net earnings by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted EPS is computed by dividing net earnings by the sum of the weighted average number of common shares and dilutive common stock equivalents outstanding during the period. Diluted EPS reflects the total potential dilution that could occur from outstanding equity awards, including unexercised stock options, utilizing the treasury stock method.
To determine the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the periods presented prior to the Distribution, the Former Parent's weighted average number of common shares outstanding was multiplied by distribution ratio of one share of the Company's common stock for every four shares of the Former Parent's common stock. Thereafter, the weighted average number of common shares outstanding was based on the Company's basic and fully diluted share figures.
A reconciliation of shares used in calculating basic and diluted earnings per common shares follows. There is no dilutive effect of SARs, as such, obligations are not settled and were out of the money for the three months ended September 30, 2014 and 2013.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-11, Transfers and Servicing (Topic 860): Repurchase-to-Maturity Transactions, Repurchases Financings, and Disclosures, which requires that repurchase-to-maturity transactions be accounted for as secured borrowings consistent with the accounting for other repurchase agreements. In additions, the amendments require separate accounting for a transfer of a financial asset executed contemporaneously with a repurchase agreement with the same counterparty, which will result in secured borrowing accounting for the repurchase agreement. ASU 2014-11 is effective beginning annual periods beginning after December 15, 2014 and for interim periods beginning after March 15, 2015. We are currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2014-11 on our consolidated financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), which supersedes nearly all existing revenue recognition guidance under U.S. GAAP. The core principle of ASU 2014-09 is to recognize revenues when promised goods or services are transferred to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which an entity expects to be entitled for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 defines a five step process to achieve this core principle and, in doing so, more judgment and estimates may be required within the revenue recognition process than are required under existing U.S. GAAP.
The standard is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods therein, using either of the following transition methods: (i) a full retrospective approach reflecting the application of the standard in each prior reporting period with the option to elect certain practical expedients, or (ii) a retrospective approach with the cumulative effect of initially adopting ASU 2014-09 recognized at the date of adoption (which includes additional footnote disclosures). We are currently evaluating the impact of our pending adoption of ASU 2014-09 on our consolidated financial statements and have not yet determined the method by which we will adopt the standard in 2017.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef